Process mapping and analysis is the main basis for systematic management.

In the same way as an engineer uses a drawing, or a physician a model of the body, the manager needs to have a tangible basis for developing, exploring and validating his/her ideas. Process Mapping provides that basis, and is key to determining and analysing process measurement (Metrics) and statistical control. The diagram above is an example of such a process map.

Process Mapping in itself however is a sterile activity and needs to be linked to other tools to ensure a robust approach to Process Management. Some of these are outlined below:

Business QFD, provides a framework to ensure that processes are targeted on the right objectives

PDCA, the cycle proposed by Deming, has a lot to offer Process Management. The simple sequence of Plan, Do, Check, Act does much to ensure that the required learning and improvement takes place.

Simulation provides a means for understanding how a process is likely to behave in different situations, and can help prevent problems before they occur. This is especially true of processes where cycle time is important.

Process Analysis is a structured means of identifying improvements in the way the process is set up.

The Management & Planning Toolkit provides a number of tried and tested simple tools to reinforce what is perhaps the most important process of all - the process of management.

The above tools can do much to help organisations systematically develop and manage their processes. Please click on the diagram below (or on the associated text) to explore the various approaches that have been used to develop and refine 'Process' within organisations.

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Business QFD, Training, Process Improvement, Process Mapping,
PDCA, Simulation, Process Analysis, Process Metrics,
Management & Planning Toolkit


Business QFD

QFD, described in some detail in the Philosophy page of this section, provides an excellent tool for thinking through the business processes and what they should deliver.

Defining the Processes of the company is not a precise science - there is no one perfect way to subdivide the company - each different way will have its merits and its disadvantages. The key thing is to identify a Process Model (the list of processes for your business, and what they comprise) which you believe will provide a clear (unconfused) basis for managing the business, and which will provide insights for improving the business.

The best way we have found of doing this is to list the various activities of the business on to sticky-notes, and split the management team up into syndicate groups to develop proposed Process Models by grouping the activities into a limited number of top level processes. On completion of the syndicate exercise the strengths and weaknesses of the various models are discussed, and a preferred model is selected - this is further refined by drawing ideas from the rejected models to address the chosen model's weaknesses.

The QFD provides a basis for examining the potential of each process to contribute to the achievement of the business objectives (positively or detrimentally), and this analysis creates a framework for both analysing and redesigning the process.

QFD drives the Management to consider the correct organisation of its processes in concept, and then to translate this understanding into an appropriate design. Without this the cost of misalignment or inefficiency in the process can prove very expensive, either in terms of correcting it physically or in terms of the consequences in overhead costs or loss of business. The diagram (right) illustrates this: issues that would take minutes to address in the concept stage, take hours if they have to be addressed in design (in terms of changing procedures and plans etc.), take weeks if they make it through to implementation (in terms of modifying or re-ordering plant etc.), and can cost many times that if left as a general inefficiency or weakness in the business.

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The concept of PROCESS is still not fully embedded in many companies. A lot of companies still focus on departments and achievements, rather than processes and performance. In part this is due to their people not feeling fully confident in talking about business processes - many have heard about Business Process Re-engineering (BPR), and figure it is something you have 'done to you' unless your lucky enough to avoid it until it fades away.

PROCESS as something you have 'done to you' will fade away, but PROCESS that you work through for yourselves will not - it is far to powerful and effective a concept for this to happen, and it will survive because the companies that use it will survive.

PROCESS is a simple concept, but to use it confidently and efficiently will require you training your managers in the thinking and tools that lie behind it. Much of this can be done in-house on-the-job by managers who have gained these skills previously, and are using them with their teams. To augment this you might consider specific training in Process Mapping or Process Analysis.

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Process Improvement

There is a model of learning which demonstrates how we pass through 4 stages in assimilating a new skill. The stages are: Unconsciously Incompetent - we don't know that we don't know; Consciously Incompetent - we discover our weakness in a particular area; Consciously Competent - we get training or develop the necessary skills; Unconsciously Competent - we become so adept that it happens naturally almost without us realising that we are doing it. To understand this better you might think it through for something specific - eg driving a car.

The model of Process Improvement (shown above left) is very simple to this, and describes a step-by-step approach for developing learning within a business process:

Step 1: (Current Physical) The process exists and produces a result, but there may be very little overall understanding of what exactly happens when, how and by whom, or even how well. All the understanding of the process is hard-wired into people's jobs, machine programs, plant layout etc.

Step 2: (Current Logical) The process is mapped out so everybody can see exactly how it works currently. The flow of activities, and how they are resourced and controlled is understood. And the performance (time taken, number produced, yield rate etc.) and the variability in that performance is documented.

Step 3: (Future Logical) The logical map developed above is considered for weaknesses and inefficiencies. These are addressed by changing work flows and activities, or by making other changes to resources or control mechanisms. A new map is then developed to show how the process needs to change.

Step 4 (Future Physical) The changed map is implemented through changes to procedures, re-training, machine re-design, new control systems etc. as appropriate. The process then functions in the new way until it comes time to review its performance and the cycle is repeated (but with a lot less effort than the first time round!)

The logic of Process Redesign is that if you can determine exactly what all the bits of the process should be doing, and then refine them and develop them to do this consistently well - the output of the process will look after itself (see diagram to the right)

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Process Mapping

Process Mapping (otherwise known as Flowcharting) provides a well proven method for undertaking process improvement. It is the primary vehicle for moving from Current Physical (Step 1 - see above) to Current Logical (Step 2). It is also a valuable tool in viewing inconsistencies and redesigning the process (Step 3) and in communicating the changes (Step 4).

A Process Map is simply a graphical way of representing the process flows and activities. Done properly it can bring real understanding to a group and develop a clear picture of what actually happens and any obvious issues or inconsistencies within it. It also forms a catalyst for the team to talk about process problems as they experience them in practice.

Process mapping uses a small number of simple symbols to represent what happens in reality. The description of physical events is written into the symbols. The symbols should be used as they are defined here - in practice many people only realise the importance of this discipline when they get into problems with their first process map. The mapping symbols are:

Formal Symbols

A yellow rectangle to represent an activity. Activities should always be expressed using at least one verb (doing word) and one noun (object word).

An arrow is used purely to link one symbol to the next. It indicates precedence (order) only and should never be used to indicate the flow of material or information (though this is a common mistake)

A blue diamond is used to represent a decision point where the flow of the process may go different ways depending on the outcome of the decision. The most common use of it is to write the decision question in the symbol, and draw two arrows coming out of it - one labelled 'yes' and the other 'no'. For more complex decisions it is possible to put more than two arrows coming out, each with the answer to which they relate written on them.

Green (start) or red (stop) round-ended boxes are used to mark the start and finish(es) of the Process Map.

Informal Symbols

While these symbols are not part of the formal system they can be useful in noting concerns, issues and ideas which might otherwise be forgotten, sidetrack the discussion, or cause members of the team to fret over remembering them and disengage with what is happening in the meeting. We have found them very useful in this regard.

Grey clouds can be used where the team is currently unaware of what actually happens in the process. These are only a temporary symbol, and should be replaced when the detail of the process is understood. They are however useful in getting the mapping team past an impasse without them having to make things up.

Red flashes are useful to record concerns the team has about how the process works in practice. These are most commonly used when the process as drawn is sometimes not followed, and can be used to note the issue.

Green ellipses are used to record the guidance that might be referred to in making a decision or undertaking an activity. They are useful for noting the control mechanisms that are in place without having to over complicate the actual process map.

Blue clouds are used to record ideas and suggestions as they occur to people - in particular burning suggestions as to how things could be improved or made different. They form a useful outlet, and have many times prevented a discussion being totally derailed.

A lot of software now exists for mapping processes on a computer (eg Flowcharter, Visio) and this is a very good way of documenting Process Maps, of re-designing them, and of keeping them updated. The example diagram on the right was produced using Visio.

We would however recommend that flowcharts are always produced on flipcharts in the first instance, and stuck around the room so the whole mapping team can see them and remain engaged.

Though this approach is more time consuming in changing and correcting mistakes, it is many times better at getting to the truth of what happens and ensuring the full attention of all assembled.

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PDCA stands for Plan, Do, Check, Act.

This cycle of activity, also known as the Deming Wheel, was developed by W. Edwards Deming (the father of Total Quality) to represent how improvement should take place:

Plan represents the need to think through exactly what you are going to do before you do it.

Do represents the undertaking of the activity that has been planned, and to ensure it happens as planned.

Check represents the need to review the results and impact of the activity in an objective and analytical manner.

Act represents the need to make changes to future plans in order to incorporate the learning from 'Check'.

People who are involved in training will note a number of similarities with Kolb's learning cycle. The concept is a very simple one, and some might think it is trivial or 'obvious', but it is quite amazing how poorly it happens in practice. It is our experience that most companies will have many examples of doing the first two steps poorly, and even more examples of missing out the last two steps completely.

PDCA is embodied in the systematic management approach (see the diagram on the right), and the colours of the wheel shown above have been done to match the various elements of the systematic model. But it is still a useful acronym to remember for the less structured tasks and activities that may fall outside of your formal systematic approach.

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Process Simulation is a technique where the activities and flows of a process are represented mathematically, and the process is then operated as a model, either on a computer or using something resembling a giant gaming board, to ascertain how the process is likely to work in practice given certain situations.

Process simulation can be very valuable in looking at cycle times and the effect of backlogs or batching on the flow of a process. Specialist process simulation software is available, but much can be done using simple spreadsheets or database packages such as Excel or Access.

Process simulation can do much to illustrate the effect of different departments approaches on the overall process. And the thinking involved in developing the simulation is a good discipline for understanding exactly what is important in the process in terms of cycle time, quality, decision points etc.

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Process Analysis

Process analysis is the means by which existing processes can be objectively analysed to evaluate how effective and efficient they actually are. Exactly how the analysis is undertaken depends on the depth of understanding that needs to be developed and the level of documentation and data that already exists, but in general analysis is likely to work through the following steps:

1. A general investigation of the quality of definition of the process, such as its objectives, scope, content, and the extent to which that definition is understood by those involved in the process.

2. A (theoretical) evaluation of how the 'design' of the process, and the standards and practice set within it meet the defined objectives. In many cases the 'design' will be more implicit (in existing custom & practice) than explicit, but it will exist.

3. A more hands on evaluation of the process through surveying the operators and customers of the process to determine the main strengths and issues in the process - this is likely to provide further insight into 1 & 2 above.

4. The collection of performance data, and the quantification of key issues defined in 3 above. The data is evaluated against the defined objectives, quality standards and needs of the business.

5. An overall evaluation of the current process based on the above, and an evaluation of how well equipped the process is to adapt to such learning and to future change.

Process Analysis is clearly only valuable inasmuch as it leads to an improvement in all of the above. The link between Process Analysis and the systematic model can be seen in the diagram to the right.

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Process Metrics

Process metrics are the 'measurements' which monitor the extent to which a process controllably and predictably fulfils its operating and performance objectives. These measurements can be output measurements or in-process measurements (which are often the output measures of sub-processes), or in some cases input measurements.

In the simplest sense these measures can be collected and averaged, and used to provide an analysis of process performance and issues, which can then be worked on to improve the process. (See section above on Process Analysis).

A more sophisticated use of process metrics is Statistical Process Control (SPC) which can be used to trend these measurements, and to predict quality issues and thus prevent them causing problems 'downstream'. SPC is used extensively in certain manufacturing processes, but is not very much in evidence in clerical processes.

Process Metrics have a lot to offer in ensuring high performance and quality, but are often avoided for reasons of anticipated bureaucracy. Measurement does take time and effort. However a 2% overhead in administration, though it might seem wasteful at first glance, is more than justified by a 10% improvement in performance.


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Management & Planning Toolkit

One of the real strengths of the Japanese is a tendency to standardise and simplify wherever possible.

Faced with an ever increasing number of management tools and approaches to the management process, JUSE (the Japanese Institute of Scientists and Engineers) undertook a long term project to evaluate which tools were bringing benefits in practice, and to reduce these down into a standard set which could be used anywhere.

This work concluded after a number of years research in what is known as the Seven Management and Planning Tools. Seven simple tools which address practically all management and decision making situations, and which can be learnt quickly and applied in teams. The result is both simple and profound. Simple in terms of the mechanics - profound in terms of the insights that can be developed from them.

Two of the tools are matrices (one for looking at interactions, the other for prioritising) which have been combined to form the QFD (Quality Function Deployment) approach covered in the section on Philosophy. The other five are:

The Affinity Diagram

The Tree Diagram

The Process Decision Program Chart

The Activity Network Diagram

The Interrelationship Digraph

These tools offer a great deal to the management process, and help to establish a formal process in areas of decision making where process is often difficult or sometimes non-existent. The remaining five tools are shown below:

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The Affinity Diagram is a tool for looking at patterns and for grouping and summarising ideas. It is also known as the silent sorting technique, and is most commonly used at the end of a 'brainstorming' session where many disparate thoughts have been collected. Each of the thoughts (ideas, issues, activities, ...) are written on a separate sticky-note, and these are stuck up randomly on a large flat wall (check this out beforehand - not all wall surfaces work, and not all sticky-notes either). The participants then move one note at a time, in total silence, to place it with other similar notes, and this continues until the pattern settles down, at which point the resulting 'affinities' or groups of ideas are summarised (not categorised) and labelled.

Silence is important - not being able to explain your own point of view forces you to try and resolve matters by trying to see what the other person is seeing. In practice allow twenty minutes for an Affinity Diagram, or two hours if you allow people to talk their way through it!

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The Tree Diagram is a tool to explore exactly what needs to be done in order to achieve a goal. The tree starts at the left with the goal to be achieved, and then branches to the right into progressive levels of detail as to how each objective and task breaks down into more detailed objectives and tasks.

The Why-How Chart outlined in the section on Purpose is a form of the Tree Diagram, but it tends to develop the trunk of the tree out of the branches (ie to arrive at the top-level objective by thinking through more detailed objectives).

The Tree Diagram should culminate at the far right in a complete list of all the tasks that are required to fulfil the main task or objective listed on the left.

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The Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) Is very similar in many ways to the Tree Diagram, but is specifically intended to look at all the decisions and uncertainties that exist in moving from the current situation to the intended future, and to look at all the possible outcomes and the contingencies for those that are unwanted.

The PDPC can be used to extend the tree diagram to look at what can go wrong in all the detailed activities and to plan how such problems may be avoided or overcome. This can be done for all areas or, more appropriately, can be focused on areas that are particularly important or risky.

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The Activity Network Diagram is very similar to P.E.R.T. approach commonly used in project planning and management. The diagram starts on the left hand side, and links the activities that need to take place to achieve the goal (right hand side) in the order of precedence that they must occur. Tasks that need other tasks to be completed before they can take place, are placed to the right of them and linked by an arrow. Activities that can take place in parallel are placed above and below each other to show that they are in separate chains of events.

The tool is key to developing an efficient approach to delivering the goal in the shortest possible time. It is commonly used for developing a time plan of the activities arising out of the Tree Diagram, or out of the PDPC.

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The Interrelationship Digraph is often used to further explore the groups that develop out of the affinity diagram. It is intended to enable people to see links and causal relationships.

The Digraph is produced by placing all of the factors (eg groups from an Affinity Diagram) onto a large piece of paper in an initially random fashion. These factors are then linked by arrows to represent causal effects - eg the factor at the head of the arrow is 'caused' by the factor at the tail.

The number of arrows converging on, or emanating from, a factor can provide indications of root causes, and other problems, and any loops in the arrows can indicate vicious circles (or virtuous cycles).

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